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Rock climbing is an activity in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a usually pre-defined route without falling. Professional Rock climbing competitions have the objectives of either completing the route in the quickest possible time or attaining the farthest point on an increasingly difficult route. Scrambling, another activity involving the scaling of hills and similar formations, is similar to rock climbing. However, rock climbing is generally differentiated by its sustained use of hands to support the climber's weight as well as to provide balance. Rock climbing is a physically and mentally demanding sport, one that often tests a climber's strength, endurance, agility and balance along with mental control. It can be a dangerous activity and knowledge of proper climbing techniques and usage of specialised climbing equipment is crucial for the safe completion of routes. Because of the wide range and variety of rock formations around the world, rock climbing has been separated into several different styles and sub-disciplines. Most of the rock climbing found in Andalusia are sports routes, bouldering and traditional.
Trekking, hiking, hill walking or backpacking is an outdoor recreation where gear is carried in a backpack. This can include food, water, bedding, shelter, clothing, stove, and cooking kit. Trekking trips usually take under a full day whereas backpacking consist of at least one night. It is always environmentally sound in order to protect the outdoors for future generations to minimise our impact on the environment, including staying on established trails, not disturbing vegetation, and carrying our rubbish out. "Leave nothing but footprints. Take nothing but photos. Kill nothing but time. Keep nothing but memories", is a mantra that Ultimate Rock Adventures always follows. Because of the unpredictability of the outdoors we must always be prepared for difficulties, whether mishaps are experienced or not.
Canyoning, involves the use of mountaineering techniques that may include other outdoor activities such as walking, scrambling, climbing, jumping, abseiling, swimming and white water skills to successfully descend a canyon, canyons can be anything from a steep wide open river, to a deep narrow slot canyon only a couple of feet wide.
Canyons that are ideal for canyoning are often cut into the bedrock stone, forming narrow gorges with numerous drops, beautifully sculpted walls, and sometimes spectacular waterfalls. Most canyons are cut into limestone, sandstone, granite or basalt, though other rock types are found. Canyons can be very easy or extremely difficult, though emphasis in the sport is usually on aesthetics and fun rather than pure difficulty. A wide variety of canyoning routes are found throughout the world, and canyoning is enjoyed by people of all ages and skill levels. Canyoning gear includes climbing hardware, ropes, helmets, wetsuits, packs, and rope bags.
A via ferrata (Italian for "iron road") is a protected climbing route found in the Alps and certain other locations. The essence of a modern via ferrata is a steel cable which runs along the route and is periodically fixed to the rock. Using a via ferrata kit, climbers can secure themselves to the cable, limiting any fall. The cable can also be used as aid to climbing, and additional climbing aids, such as iron rungs (stemples), pegs, carved steps and even ladders and bridges are often provided. Thus via ferratas allow otherwise dangerous routes to be undertaken without the risks associated with unprotected scrambling and climbing or the need for climbing equipment such as ropes. They offer the relatively inexperienced a means of enjoying dramatic positions and accessing difficult peaks, normally the preserve of the serious mountaineer; although, as there is a need for some equipment, a good head for heights and basic technique, the via ferrata can be seen as a distinct step up from ordinary mountain walking. Via ferratas can vary in length from short routes taking less than an hour, to long, demanding alpine routes covering significant distance and altitude In difficulty, via ferratas can range from routes that are little more than paths, albeit in dramatic and exposed situations, to very steep and strenuous routes, overhanging in parts, demanding the strength—if not the technique—of serious rock climbing.
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